Peter Bergmann: Nietzsche was among the most historically minded of philosophers. Sometimes Nietzsche may seem to have very definite opinions on what he regards as moral or as immoral. [107] In The Will to Power he wrote: The maintenance of the military State is the last means of adhering to the great tradition of the past; or, where it has been lost, to revive it. In 1886 Nietzsche sent Brandes copies of, see Steven Luper's introduction on Nietzsche in, Dennett, D. C. (1995), Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life, Simon & Schuster, "For a clear reconstruction of Nietzsche's uncharacteristically careful deduction of what he once described as 'the most scientific of hypotheses,' see Danto 1965, pp. This anthology includes essays by many of the leading Nietzsche scholars, including Keith Ansell-Pearson, Daniel Conway, Tracy B. "Nietzsche viewed his argument for eternal recurrence as a proof of the absurdity or meaninglessness of life, a proof that no meaning was given to the universe from on high. I think it is a bit of a stretch to call Schmitt a 'devoted' Nazi. Although he volunteered for the Franco-Prussian war, he soon became critical of Prussian militarism, mostly because of his disillusionment in German culture and national politics, but didn't renounce militarism in general. Josh Jones is a writer and musician based … Nietzsche believed that the central task of philosophy was to teach us to 'become who we are'. In one of the passages, Nietzsche wrote: "Those moralists, on the other hand, who, following in the footsteps of Socrates, offer the individual a morality of self-control and temperance as a means to his own advantage, as his personal key to happiness, are the exceptions." Nietzsche believed that clinging to any metaphysical standard of truth, whether done subliminally as a scientist or overtly as a churchgoer, stymies the human capacity to create meaning. In Ecce Homo he particularly praised French culture as superior to all others, especially German. He believed that mixed race persons were usually inferior because of the conflicting, incompatible instincts that exist in them, and advocated racial purification. How far this mode of thought has carried me already, how far it will carry me yet – I am almost afraid to imagine. [106] He proposed conscription, polytechnic military education and the idea that all men of higher classes should be reserve officers in addition to their civilian jobs. [28] However, much of his thoughts on the subject are unsystematic and he did not leave specific instructions about how this new aristocratic class should be selected and elevated to the ruling positions in society. 3 – Vol. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher who was also highly active in the arts, writing both music and poetry. As a writer, he wrote several books such as The Gay S… Nietzsche's political ideas were variously interpreted as aristocratic radicalism[9], Bonapartism[10], proto-fascism, individualist anarchism, with some authors describing him as apolitical, anti-political or political sceptic. But I have already answered: all that proceeds from weakness, from envy, from revenge. Nietzsche believed that if socialist goals are achieved society would be leveled down and conditions for superior individuals and higher culture would disappear. [16] A superficial observer may wonder how contemporary science, that Baconian product of the Enlightenment, could be a metaphysical force shaping the destiny of modern Europe. [The Gay Science (1882), p. 341 (passage translated in Danto 1965, p. Rival Visions of the Best Way of Life in, Learn how and when to remove this template message, http://www.handprint.com/SC/NIE/GotDamer.html#sect1, Nietzsche Source: Digital version of the German critical edition of the complete works / Digital facsimile edition of the entire Nietzsche estate, Martin Heidegger and Nietzsche's Overman: Aphorisms on the Attack, Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philosophy_of_Friedrich_Nietzsche&oldid=992629248, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from December 2010, Articles that may contain original research from September 2007, All articles that may contain original research, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2011, Articles needing additional references from March 2007, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "The whole problem of the Jews exists only in nation states, for here their energy and higher intelligence, their accumulated capital of spirit and will, gathered from generation to generation through a long schooling in suffering, must become so preponderant as to arouse mass envy and hatred. Despite Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche's falsifications (highlighted in 1937 by Georges Bataille and proved in the 1960s by the complete edition of Nietzsche's posthumous fragments by Mazzino Montinari and Giorgio Colli), his notes, even in the form given by his sister, remain a key insight into the philosophy of Nietzsche, and his unfinished transvaluation of all values. "[8], What if a demon were to creep after you one day or night, in your loneliest loneness, and say: "This life which you live and have lived, must be lived again by you, and innumerable times more. Owing largely to the writings of Kaufmann and French postwar philosophers, Nietzsche's reputation improved and today he usually is not linked to Nazism as he was in the past. Buccola, N. (2009) "The Tyranny of the Least and the Dumbest": Nietzsche's Critique of Socialism. Nietzsche often referred to the common people who participated in mass movements and shared a common mass psychology as "the rabble", or "the herd". He considered the individual subject as a complex of instincts and wills-to-power, just as any other organization. I think Nietzsche’s view of philosophers offers two things lacking in this contemporary work. For Nietzsche, after all, we need not disregard a statement merely because it expresses something false. [103] In The Will to Power he further elaborated: When the instincts of a society ultimately make it give up war and renounce conquest, it is decadent: it is ripe for democracy and the rule of shopkeepers. [citation needed], Nietzsche's view on eternal return is similar to that of Hume: "the idea that an eternal recurrence of blind, meaningless variation—chaotic, pointless shuffling of matter and law—would inevitably spew up worlds whose evolution through time would yield the apparently meaningful stories of our lives. The old philosophers – Nietzsche also calls them the “teachers of the purpose of existence” (Gay Science §1); it’s not professors of philosophy he has primarily in mind – were in the business of inventing values. Walter Kaufmann put forward the view that the powerful individualism expressed in his writings would be disastrous if introduced to the public realm of politics. But women aren't even shallow. [52] In his later writings he especially praised contemporary French authors, most of whom were right-wing thinkers whose works expressed strongly negative response to the Commune and it's political heritage. That which does not exist cannot be revealed. All comments are moderated and must be civil, concise, and constructive to the conversation. [73] Nietzsche used the term race in two different meanings, for ethnic groups and social classes. He recognizes that not everyone holds either scheme in a clearly delineated fashion without some syncretism, he presents them in contrast to one another. Nietzsche never mentioned Karl Marx or Friedrich Engels by name, and it is unclear whether he was acquainted with their ideas. In January 1937 he dedicated an issue of Acéphale, titled "Reparations to Nietzsche", to the theme "Nietzsche and the Fascists. "[98], Section VIII of Beyond Good and Evil, titled "Peoples and Fatherlands", criticized pan-Germanism and patriotism, advocating instead the unification of Europe (§256, etc.). In the postmodern age of self-actualization and radical skepticism, Nietzsche’s influence is clearly manifest. Indeed, the very idea of “best” implies that some standard of the good exists. The question remained pendent. Asked who the most overrated author was in a recent interview, Steven Pinker, Harvard psychologist-at-large extraordinaire, named Friedrich Nietzsche. [20][21] He was against equality of rights[22][23][24] and defended slavery, believing that it's a necessary condition for supporting an upper class which could devote itself to more sophisticated, creative activities. In almost all contemporary nations, therefore – in direct proportion to the degree to which they act up nationalistically – the literary obscenity of leading the Jews to slaughter as scapegoats of every conceivable public and internal misfortune is spreading.". These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. Nietzsche claims that not only is philosophy language dependent, but it also bewitches philosophers. The Imaginative Conservative applies the principle of appreciation to the discussion of culture and politics—we approach dialogue with magnanimity rather than with mere civility. The virtues which Nietzsche endorses are: honesty, (moral) courage, self-discipline, generosity, politeness, intellectual integrity and cheerfulness. 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